CryptoManufaktur 2022-12-21 Ethereum validators outage

Post mortem for 1,000 validator downtime on Ethereum mainnet on 2022-12-21, node operator CryptoManufaktur


00:50 UTC validators start missing attestations
01:09 UTC first Discord warning
01:25 UTC reachout by Lido team on Telegram
01:29 UTC investigation starts
01:49 UTC issue resolved

Root cause

This outage was ultimately caused by insufficient change control procedures.

We run three Ethereum nodes per Lido environment of 1,000 keys, with 2 Vouch (one hot, one cold standby) and 5 Dirk in a 3/5 threshold signing setup.

All three Ethereum nodes were unavailable for submitter duties.

Node A was in planned maintenance for client diversification, moving from Geth to Erigon.
Node B had been removed from submitter duties to protect against a theoretical dDoS vector in Ethereum.
Node C received maintenance to improve its metrics reporting. Documented maintenance procedures were not followed and it failed.


After identifying root cause, we brought Node C back up and brought Node B back into submitter rotation.

What worked well

  • Alerting worked as designed.
  • We responded quickly.
  • The separation of Lido environments with a maximum of 1,000 keys per environment worked.

What didn’t work well

  • Protecting against a theoretical dDoS attack vector, we DoS’d ourselves by reducing resilience.
  • Change control failed to flag that one node was already under maintenance.
  • Maintenance procedures were not followed for the remaining node.

Changes made

  • All three Ethereum nodes are now in rotation for submitter duties. If the theoretical dDoS vector ever becomes practical, we can deal with that issue then by using a fourth node for “query-only” duties.
  • Strengthened procedures around change management, so that environments that are already under maintenance do not receive a second maintenance event.
  • Additional training around safe maintenance procedures on an Ethereum node.

Additional planned improvements

  • While our time to resolution was good, there is room here for improvement to have a faster initial response, by maybe another 10 to 15 minutes. We will review our escalation procedures.

Thank you for the transparency and the timely post-mortem!


Thanks to the Lido team for using their tools to calculate the estimated value lost!


Execution Layer Rewards Vault has been made whole: Ethereum Transaction Hash (Txhash) Details | Etherscan


Thank you to @yorickdowne CryptoManufaktur for the super fast response and initiative to reimburse.

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